Heidelberg National MUN 2012 - Descriptions of the Topics
A: Security Council – The Kosovo Question
On 17 February 2008, the Republic of Kosovo has declared its independence, almost a decade the Kumanovo Agreement ended the Kosovo war. This declaration of independence, however, has not been and endpoint to the disintegration of the former Republic of Yugoslavia.
Since 1999 the UN has played an active role in the Kosovo and the Balkans: Security Council Resolution 1244 created the KFOR as an international peace-keeping force led by the NATO and placed the Kosovo province under the administration of the United Nations. Until today, the international community is the divided about the Kosovo question. Only 85 UN member states have recognized the Republic of Kosovo so far. Nevertheless are many nations with many different interests involved in the area.
The EU tries to integrate Kosovo and the whole Balkans into their sphere by promoting the rule of law through the EULEX mission. Russia, on the other hand, is generally very critical about foreign interventions in Balkans, and strongly opposes the Kosovo‘s independence. The Islamic states for their part take great interest in the Muslim population in the Balkans, and it is therefore not surprising that Saudi Arabia, for instance, is one of the largest economic aid providers in the area.
The representatives of the Republic of Kosovo themselves have requested an end of the UN administration in order to gain full sovereignty. The Republic of Serbia still sees the Kosovo as a part of their state, and does not recognize its independence at all. During the last couple of months, events such as clashes at the border between the Kosovo and Serbia have shown that the overall situation is still far from stable.
As a Security Council delegate it will be your objective to diplomatically negotiate a new comprehensive Security Council Resolution for the future of the Kosovo and the Balkans, while keeping in mind your assigned country‘s interests.
B: Human Rights Council – The economic situation in the occupied Palestine territories
Even though the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt), consisting of the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and East Jerusalem, experienced a revival of economic activity in 2009, the economic conditions overall are still degraded. The combination of internal mismanagement and external restrictions, primarily by the Israeli government, have helped to cause dramatic levels of poverty, which in turn has led to violence, internal displacement, and a new cycle of poverty.
The situation is especially worrying in the Gaza strip where high population density, limited land and sea access, and strict internal and external security controls have led the Prime Minister of Turkey to call it an “open air prison”. Internal political and economic factors combined with a failure of Palestine, Israel, and the international community to resolve the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict, resulted in a cycle of poverty which exists until present.
Many countries provide aid to the oPt making the Palestine economy heavily dependent on foreign relief programs. This is especially problematic because political disputes become obstacles when it comes to providing aid. Western countries, for instance, have threatened to cut their programs if Hamas becomes part of the Palestine unified government.
Delegates of the Human Rights Council have to negotiate long-term solutions to recover both the economic and humanitarian situation in the oPt without ignoring the framework of Palestinian national plans and other strategies, and without endangering the resolution of the underlying political conflict.